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Credit Risk

Credit risk is the economic loss suffered due to the default of a borrower or counterparty. [Source: Society of Actuaries (SOA) Enterprise Risk Management Specialty Guide]

In a general sense, it is the risk that a counterparty to an agreement will be unable or unwilling to make the payments required under that agreement. Some organisations define credit risk more narrowly as the risk that a borrower will partially or wholly default on repayment of debt (interest and/or capital payments). The phrase 'credit risk' is also sometimes used to include risks relating to variations in credit spreads in the market. [Source: Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (IFoA) Enterprise Risk Management Specialist Principles (SP9) Core Reading]

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Credit Spread

Credit spread is a measure of the difference between the yield on a risky and a risk-free security, typically a corporate bond and a government bond respectively (although other reference assets may b


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